As the Czech Republic prepared to enter the European Community in 2004, one of the many changes it must implement is how garbage is handled. Relying solely on landfills will no longer be accepted; instead the garbage must be recycled and reused. One option commonly used in Europe to reduce the amount of waste buried in landfills is to burn it and to recover the heat for district heating and electricity production. For Plzenská teplárenská, the district heating company in Plzen, waste-to-energy appeared to be a way to expand and diversify without straying too far from its core energy business. With funding from the US Trade and Development Agency, Plzenská teplárenská contracted with the study team—FVB Energy and HDR Engineering. Under this engagement, HDR analyzed the technical issues, and FVB analyzed the business case. The study activities started in 2002 with a visit to Plzen, and the project was completed in 2003.